Thursday, 15 February 2018

Why DDMP should be Child Centric? —Ten Reasons

Dr. Yasmin Ali Haque, Country Representative, UNICEF launched Child-Centric District Disaster Management Plan, Raipur along with Prasanta Dash, CFO UNICEF Chhattisgarh; O.P. Choudhary, District Collector Raipur; Nileshkumar Kshirsagar, CEO, Jila Panchayat Raipur (right to left); December 22, 2017, Chhattisgarh.
District Disaster Management Plans (DDMPs) are important policy instruments that help in disaster governance at the sub-national and local level in India. Mandated by the Disaster Management Act of 2005, these DDMPs have become increasingly central in guiding administration's response to a disaster or emergency. The following ten points capture the importance of having child-centric DDMPs:

  1. Children are a vulnerable group primarily because of their age. Their dependency on adults for food, hygiene, care, shelter and protection has bearing on their survival and development.
  2. During the last decade of the 20th century, disasters affected an estimated 66 million children around the world each year (children typically represent 50-60 percent of those affected by a disaster). This number is projected to more than triple over the coming decades.
  3. In the aftermath of a disaster, children face a range of risks, from death, injuries, and diseases related to malnutrition, to poor water and sanitation, and psychological trauma and its debilitating effects. Displacement and separation from guardians and support networks, and the increased impoverishment of already poor households further exposes children to abuse, exploitation, and trafficking. Further adding to the long-term effects of disasters is the disruption of education during critical development years.
  4. Children's rights to survival, clean water, food, health, sanitation, shelter, education and protection are compromised by disaster risk and climate change. When a disaster occurs, schools are frequently used as shelters, depriving children of their learning spaces. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child states that children have inalienable rights in all circumstances - including during disasters when they are most exposed to risks. Children also have the right to participate in decisions that affect them, risk reduction and resilience building decisions at district level.
  5. Governments in South Asia have demonstrated their commitment to the survival, development and protection of children by being signatories of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989 and its two Optional Protocols in 2000. They have further adopted the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children in 1990. Regionally, the Heads of States and Governments of South Asia signed the SAARC Convention on Regional Arrangements on the Promotion of Child Welfare in South Asia in 2002 and adopted the SAARC Social Charter in 2004, which places strong emphasis on the promotion of the rights and well-being of the child. School Safety Guidelines of National Disaster Management Authority, Government of India, focus light upon the urgent need to strengthen risk resilience of schools in urban as well as rural areas of the country.
  6. Child-centred DRR and programming for children have long-term development gains for children and for the society at large. Investments in child health, nutrition, education and child protection not only result in child survival, development and well-being but also in poverty reduction and increased resilience of societies to withstand shocks and stresses. Participation, empowerment and equitable development further help stabilizing fragile states and building stable societies.
  7. In 2000, all South Asian governments endorsed the Millennium Development Goals with six out of eight goals related directly to children. South Asia governments have also played an active role in formulating the 17 new Sustainable Development Goals that are emerging as a result of the post-2015 development debate.
  8. Vulnerability assessment is a critical task for governments working for the survival, well-being and protection of their citizens. Children's vulnerability and exposure to disaster risk are largely shaped by their birthplace and the period in which they are born. The socioeconomic status and educational level of family members also matter and so do their own physical and mental condition.
  9. A child-centred risk assessment brings children onto the national DRR and CCA agendas by making use of child vulnerability data from sectors such as health, nutrition, WASH, education and child protection. The point is that child vulnerabilities often serve as a better proxy for community vulnerabilities than monetary values used by insurance companies and development banks. This is particularly true for South Asia, a region with a high proportion of children and youth. 'SAARC Framework for Care, Protection and Participation of Children in Disasters' emphasis on the need for mainstreaming the issues of children in the policies, strategies, programmes of projects in all relevant sectors including DRR and emerging management in South Asia.
  10. Migration, urbanization, slum settlements and rapid growth contribute to the risk profile of South Asia. Population movements from rural to urban areas remain unplanned. People from rural areas often end up living in slums as squatters in cities due to lack of affordable and safe shelters. The region has nine mega-cities with a population of more than 10 million including Delhi, Mumbai, Karachi, Dhaka, Kolkata, Lahore, Bengaluru, Chennai and Hyderabad. While most countries have adopted national land-use policies and implemented area-based development plans in priority areas, no countries have enforced comprehensive spatial planning. Although natural hazard maps are available, seismic, landslide and flood assessments have rarely been incorporated into development plans. In most South Asian countries building codes are seen as complex and costly, and building standards rarely enforced.

All the aforementioned reasons have enhanced the exposure and vulnerability of children in South Asia to multiple disaster risks. Therefore, the district disaster management plans (DDMPs) of the region should be child centric to protect the children against such risks.







– Vandana Chauhan and Brij Chauhan, AIDMI

for any further information please contact: bestteam@aidmi.org 

Tuesday, 13 February 2018

Coastal Preparedness and Response in India

India has the longest coastline among all the countries in South Asia. The country's 7,517 kms of coastline gives it unparalleled access to the seas, it also makes India highly prone to coastal disasters such as cyclones, storm surges and tsunamis. The coastal areas and coastal communities of India that bear a major brunt of these disasters must appear more often in the disaster management plans of various states and districts. Oddly enough, this is not the case.

As mentioned earlier, the coastal areas face an increasing risk of cyclones, floods and salinity ingress in addition to tsunamis. The delta areas, such as the Sundarbans, are especially vulnerable.

Recent cyclone Okhi in November and December, 2017 caused severe damages to structures and property claiming the lives of 218 lives in the Southern parts of Tamilnadu and Kerala in India.

The Government of Gujarat has decided to establish a satellite-based tracking and warning system on about 12,000 fishing boats at a cost of 95 crore INR.

Maharashtra has begun colour-coding fishing boats district-wise rather than assigning a common colour to all boats registered in the state. Since 2015, the Mumbai police have been using 18 boats to patrol Mumbai's coastline every day.

Kerala had set up a coastal police force to add an extra layer of protection and prevent the intrusion of any anti-national elements or illicit items through the sea. (PwC, 2017)

India is investing public money to develop ports and harbours. Private corporations—Indian and others— are investing in coastal ports and harbours as they have the potential to become the hub of economic activity in the country in the next 3 to 5 years.

An estimated US$ 18.6 billion will be invested in major ports and US$ 28.5 billion in non-major ports by 2020. Under the Sagarmala Programme, the Government of India has envisioned a total of 189 projects for modernisation of ports involving an investment of INR 1.42 trillion (US$ 22 billion) by the year 2035. (IBEF, 2017)

One of the key areas for coastal preparedness and response is mobility and connectedness after a disaster. In the aftermath of a disaster, the citizens often get cut from land and sea both, and have to wait for days or over weeks for basic heavy supply of food, water and health inputs. Seaplanes offer one more choice to deliver relief and rescue on land and in sea to Indian citizens.

Seaplanes, planes that land and take-off from sea (or large suitable water body) may be a step in the direction of coastal preparedness and response in India.

The Transport Ministry as well as Civil Aviation Ministry have shown interest in developing seaplanes as an additional measure to connect citizens and growing trade and commerce within India and abroad. 

The interest in widespread use of seaplanes is also shown by private sector organizations such as Spice Jet in India, which has announced a plan to buy 100 seaplanes from Setouchi Holdings, Japan.

Spice Jet is a private airline in India recovering, from an economic loss with vitality and vision.

Setouchi Holdings of Japan is a leading actor in seaplane making and related investments. 

In many ways seaplanes offer connectivity for disaster response and preparedness in coastal areas.

Last month, China unveiled its domestically developed AG600, a massive four-engined amphibian plane that can carry 50 people and suck in upto 12 tonnes of water in 20 seconds for firefighting operations. Such crafts can deliver a wide range of relief supplies in coastal areas and ports.

Russia has the Beriev Be-200, a twinjet amphibian that's mainly used for firefighting operations. It also manufactures ekranoplans, which skim a short distance over water at great speed. They are distinct from hovercraft in not requiring a cushion of air. Be-200 remain close to sea water.

As a follow up to National Disaster Management Plan, India is developing a national community development road map. This road map will include, special roles for coastal states such as Andhra Pradesh on the east and Gujarat on the west coast.

The ongoing World Bank program in coastal India titled Integrated Coastal Zone Management has so far depended only on existing modes of transport. It has not explored the potential use of seaplanes in both, preparedness and response in coastal areas such as Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. 

Perhaps the most important need is to initiate a scoping study that not only reviews the existing needs but also looks at emerging transportation needs from the point of view of the National Disaster Response Force in coastal locations.

— AIDMI Team

for any further information please contact: bestteam@aidmi.org 

Thursday, 8 February 2018

Retelling Disasters


Disasters are often viewed as abrupt cataclysmic events that cause widespread death and destruction. However, it should always be borne in mind that disasters are complex phenomena that culminate due to a variety of underlying factors. Reducing them to isolated and abrupt events dilutes the narrative surrounding disasters, which in turn limits our understanding of them. Thus, it is important to focus on the narrative surrounding disasters by telling or retelling their stories.

Hardly any telling or retelling of stories of disasters is taking place in spite of the fact that disasters offer one of the most dramatic stories to tell. Similarly, the literature from the area is so loaded with jargons that it rarely is understandable or appealing to those who should know about disasters: at risk citizens.

Fortunately, there is a welcome break from this trend. Dr. R.K. Bhandari has authored "Disasters:  Short Stories, Essays & Anecdotes," published by National Book Trust (NBT), India (171 pages, September 2017).

Dr. R.K. Bhandari is an icon in the field of housing, settlement planning and risk reduction with over five decades of contribution to India's growing urban and housing sectors.

The book is of use to both, students in school as well as to the citizens of India with interest in new ideas and insights emerging from Indian experience.

AIDMI had the opportunity to work with Dr. Bhandari when the High Powered Committee was set up by the Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee to review India's relief and rehabilitation administrations. Those who have worked with Dr. Bhandari know that he moves from one task to another with ease and clarity finishing each task effortlessly.

NBT is India's leading public domain publication effort to capture all that is best of India in the form of books for experts and citizens alike.

NBT needs to continue the disaster theme as a series of publications covering important individuals whose stories must be told as well as the disasters that are worth recording in stories for both general as well as educational purpose.

Dr. Bhandari tells the reader that traditional methods for testing new ideas, insights, products and process to reduce risk are becoming expensive, even when done as pilot studies, they consume time and resources. A highly agile approach that is based on flexible problem solving and innovation is needed in India. 

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) needs to be solution focused and action oriented. How can India keep logic, imagination, institution, and systematic reasoning away from each other to explore our way ahead to a safer India? All must be merged into stories, powerful and compelling.

Indian disasters are a bit special.  Any flood or drought or cyclones get a bit tinted with Indian colours when told outside UN reports and government memorandum. P. Sainath, India's eminent journalist, in his book "Everybody Loves a Good Drought" has made this clear. Droughts in India gain their own life and persona. Dr. Bhandari gives us more evidence in this direction in his book. Once read and rested, the reader gets a clear view that disaster risk cannot be reduced by anyone acting alone-UN or government or NGOs or citizens-but only through coordinated action by all. Unless we as Indians unite across all categorisations, we cannot reduce disaster risk and build a resilient India.

Since 2005, the All India Disaster Mitigation Institute's (AIDMI's) regular publication called Southasiadisasters.net has been empowering at risk local communities and authorities by telling their stories of resilience. Documenting disasters and community voices around them has indeed proven that disasters in India do have a persona of their own and only through a united effort could India achieve resilience against these disasters.

Perhaps this is what India should focus on in its offer to South Asia to connect India's powerful National Knowledge Network (NKN) for sharing scientific database and remote access to advance research facilities.

NKN is a multi-gigabit pan-India network which facilitates the development of India's communications infrastructure, stimulates key research and creates next generation applications and knowledge services. NKN enables collaboration among researchers from different educational networks such as TEIN4, GARUDA, CERN and Internet2. NKN also enables sharing of scientific databases and remote access to advanced research facilities. Such stories can be a welcome addition to NKN in South Asia.

With its multi-gigabit capability, NKN aims to connect all universities, research institutions, libraries, laboratories, healthcare and agricultural institutions across the country to address paradigm shift. The leading mission oriented agencies in the fields of nuclear, space and defence research are also part of NKN. To strengthen research facility in various critical and emerging areas for NKN community, the network has established its international points of presence (PoP) in Geneva, Amsterdam and Singapore, and plans to soon establish a PoP in New York too. Let disaster stories populate the NKN for a joint web connect on DRR. 

— AIDMI Team

for any further information please contact: bestteam@aidmi.org   

National School Safety Program: Reflections


Safer Schools are one of the top ten ways to ensure that National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) launched in June 2016 achieves success in making India reduce risk and build resilience.

The "National School Safety Programme (NSSP)—A Demonstration Project" approved by Government of India in June, 2011 with a total cost outlay of Rs. 48.47 Crore was a 100% Centrally Sponsored Demonstrative Project. It was implemented by National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in collaboration with the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and in partnership with the State and UT Governments within an initial time frame of 24 months.

NSSP was a holistic project to promote the culture of Safety in Schools and is covered 200 schools in each of the selected 43 districts spread over 22 States/UTs of the country falling in seismic zone IV & V.

The highlights of the NSSP: 
•  NSSP was designed to cover both the Stru
   cultural and Non-Structural measures, especially to reduce the risk from Earth Quake and Fire
   Hazards in the School.
•  Since its inception, NSSP built a good partnership between Local Governments and Civil Society.
•  Appropriate and innovative approaches were undertaken in this process.
•  The ICT/IEC tools were developed at National Level and shared among the implementing partners 
    to outreach the targeted schools and school students.
•   NSSP initiated mainstreaming the process with Ministry of Human Resources Development and 
    Education Departments at National and State level respectively.
•   The NSSP focused on Development of School DM Plan, DM kit for each of the selected schools, 
    Training of schools staffs, trainers and engineers in various aspect of school safety. Mock drills are      regular affair and developing a training manual for teachers and management and students is a  
    way  ahead.

The communication tools were developed at the National Level embedding all the best practices and products collected from a varied number of expert agencies/organisations and shared among the implementing partners to outreach the targeted schools and school students.

Dialogues and debates started at National and State level to mainstream the process with Ministry of Human Resources and Education Departments at National and State level respectively. Several states such as Assam and Odisha, Gujarat and Bihar have taken innovative steps.

The partnership needs to be built up or further strengthened with the Ministry of Human Resources and Education Departments, those who can really make some differences in terms of structural, non-structural measures and behaviour change among the students and the peers and it has happened in a few states.

The experience of those states may be replicated among others and convince them to take lead for Safer Schools, while investing for the infrastructural development and innovative methods of pedagogy. This is because, in our country, if we are trying to cover the most vulnerable schools then it can be only those schools in rural areas having minimum or no infrastructural facilities and being covered under various National/State programmes of Education Department for their improvements.

The number of such schools in rural India is very high as compared to the public schools in urban areas having good infrastructural facilities and strong awareness on Safety Measures.

A time has came to mount a national effort for making schools safe and secure in India.

– AIDMI Team
for any further information please contact: bestteam@aidmi.org 

Monday, 8 January 2018

Comprehensive School Safety and Security Programme: Legislative Framework and Further Actions

How to make National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) work on the ground at the community level? One of the important steps is to start at school level. Comprehensive School Safety and Security Programme (CSSSP) has been designed and developed, aiming to make 15 lakh schools in India safe. AIDMI and UNICEF are taking initiatives with various programs and activities, including shaping and spreading the concept of School safety and Security. 

Regarding to legislative framework, different Ministries of Government of India have issued and established guidelines or advisory boards regarding to School safety and security of schools, which has greatly assisted the implementation of CSSSP. To name a few, Ministry of Human Development established Advisory Board on Corporal Punishment in schools in March 2014, which is fairly widespread and includes activities on different aspects of CSSSP. The Central Board of Secondary Education focused on School Bus as a useful start for school-level activities in School Safety Programs for students in March 2017.













The Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) developed a Guideline for state and district authorities on Safer Schools in October 2014. In December 2014, the Ministry also issued Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) on dealing with terrorist attacks on schools. This SOPs is considered to be inclusive for schools guidelines. In February 2015, Guidelines on Food safety and hygiene for schools kitchens under Child Day Meal Scheme was also developed by the Ministry to covers nutrition and safety aspects of schools. (Table 1).


Towards this end, here are some points to be noted in CSSSP:
1. Ministry of Human Resource Development     
    (HRD) must take a greater role in developing 
    and  advancing the concept of CSSSP.
2. The 13th Formation Day of India organized
    by National Disaster Management Authority
   (NDMA) witnessed a veritable gathering of 
   key stakeholders who deliberated upon the key 
   activities to be embedded in the CSSSP     
   processes of the country. Among the key  
   themes discussed were the challenges of lack 
   of skills among teachers and students on topics of 
   school safety and security.
3. Affirmative action is important to make education become inclusive and equal, but to what degree, 
    the state authorities have to define it and take this ahead in DRR activities. A more focus on girl 
    child in mock drills, for example, is one step ahead. Specific roles of disabled children in       
    awareness raising campaigns is another step forward. Similarly, the role of media to comprise 
   different perspectives needs to be leveraged.
4. The school bus is an indispensable asset for schools as it helps students to commute from home to 
    school and then back again. However, the legal liability in case of untoward incidents is not clear, 
    making these buses extremely unsafe for the students when travelling.
5. Are we missing "Safety as a medium" of DRR learning at schools? There is an opportunity to 
    teach math's through mock drills and geography through hazard assessments. At some points, 
    safety as a medium must come in. In this regard, school-to-school exchange is important.
6. Role of Members of Parliaments is crucial in making schools safe.  Each MP can have a review of 
    the performance of private and public schools -in their agenda in making the students safe.
7. Information security is another important aspect. Children are more and more exposed to the 
    Internet and virtual games. Without the supervision of adults, this can lead to different problems 
    ranging from a neglect of studies to sexual and physical abuse along with anxiety and depression.
8. 'Gender' must be included in CSSSP. Safety of Girl Children is key and essential Women and 
Child Development Department must take a lead role to ensure gender based safety and security.

Some initial work on CSSSP has been successfully done in Kashmir, and there are clear indications that it is possible to upscale and broaden the CSSSP across India.

The time has come for State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) and State Education Departments to find ways to design and develop CSSSP for 2018.

– AIDMI Team
for any further information please contact: bestteam@aidmi.org 

Friday, 5 January 2018

India and ASEAN: Partners in Making Asia Safer


The partnership between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is critical for realizing the vision of the Asia Regional Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction. The idea of such a partnership and its details can be taken up at the upcoming Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas being celebrated in Singapore on January 6-7, 2018. Similarly, this idea can also be taken up at Indo-ASEAN Commemorative Summit, to be held on January 25, 2018.

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas is one of the most important annual celebrations organized by the government of India to commemorate the achievements and goodwill of the Indian diaspora across the world.

The Indo-ASEAN Commemorative Summit will consolidate the 25 year old partnership between India and ASEAN as well as celebrate the millennia old human, maritime, cultural, commercial and religious bonds between the people of India and those of the ASEAN nations.

The Asia Regional Plan (ARP) for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) was accepted and launched at Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR) in Delhi in India, November 2016, under the leadership of Shri Kiren Rijiju, Union Minister of State for Home Affairs of India who is now energetically championing the implementation of ARP.

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) of the United Nations from Bangkok office is monitoring and facilitating the implementation of ARP.

An Asia that is resilient to disaster and climate risks would be immensely beneficial for both India and the ASEAN countries. As Asian economies scale newer rates of growth, it is important to protect that prosperity from the ravages of disasters. The partnership between India and ASEAN not only has the potential of making Asia resilient but also the potential of firmly putting its economies on a path to green growth and sustainability.

Apart from the obvious economic ties of trade, investment and business, India and ASEAN also share strong cultural and social links. Leveraging these links can offer co-benefits to both the parties at substantially lesser costs. All these factors have poised India and ASEAN to shape the future of economic prosperity and human progress in Asia.

The following are India's key five DRR Achievements:
• National Disaster Management  Plan of India is in line with Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk        Reduction. 
• Disaster Management Guidelines for more than 25 disasters and cross cutting issues such as in        
   school safety and child centred disaster risk reduction with UNICEF support.  
• Disaster Management Plans at National, State, District and sub-district level such as in Assam. 
• Well trained and well equipped National and State Disaster Response Forces such as in Andhra  
   Pradesh.
• State of the art Emergency Operation Centres at all levels such as in Gujarat.

ASEAN's key five DRR achievements include:
• ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) for regional activity.
• ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) for joint
   action.
• ASEAN Vision 2025 on Disaster Management for direction.
• ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management (AHA Centre)
  for response.
• ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) for dialogue and informing decisions.

Singapore has a keen interest in national security (which includes making schools safer); promoting (and protecting from disaster and climate risk) trade and industry; and collaborative foreign affairs (including responding in humanitarian crisis).

India is keen to promote (and protect investments and assets) in shipping, transport and highways; show case Assam and North East as a destination for investment (and make such investment safe from disaster and climate risks); and invite investments in rapidly growing coastal economy of Andhra Pradesh (that is climate and disaster risk resilient).

What India and ASEAN can jointly take up as key areas for cutting edge action under ARP are: one, finding ways to address the increasing challenges of disaster related displacement in Asia; two, using digital technology to develop comprehensive school safety and security programme for Asia; three, encouraging local leaders to initiate local disaster risk reduction planning to reduce the loss of life and livelihoods in Asia; and four, ensure system wide penetration of risk transfer and insurance in Asia.

India’s Foreign Minister Smt. Sushma Swaraj and Singapore’s Deputy Prime Minister Shri Teo Chee Hean will thus play their historic roles in making Asia safer and more prosperous at these two events.
– AIDMI Team



for any further information please contact: bestteam@aidmi.org 

Saturday, 30 December 2017

Nepal Endorses Disaster Risk Reduction Bill

Reducing disaster risks in Nepal is important to India. And building resilience in India is important to Nepal. When India and Nepal reduce risks the region is safer.
– Mihir R. Bhatt


The Himalayan nation of Nepal is famous for its scenic beauty, adventure sports and friendly people. However, it is also exposed to multiple hazards like earthquakes, floods, landslides, fires, heat waves, cold waves, lightning, windstorms, hailstorms, droughts, epidemics and so on due to its variable geo-climatic conditions, young geology, unplanned settlements, deforestation, environmental degradation and increasing population. The 2015 Nep
al Earthquake which claimed over 10,000 lives and caused economic damages amounting to US $ 7 Billion is a testament to the country's enhanced vulnerability to disaster risk.

As a nation that is frequently ravaged by disasters, governance of disasters in Nepal was primarily fell under the ambit of the National Calamity Relief Act of 1982. However, it did not cover the broader spectrum of hazard mitigation and disaster risk management or the categorization of the diversified disasters which the country is exposed to. Therefore, there was an urgent need for a new legal framework that would holistically address disaster risk in Nepal.

The endorsement of the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRM) bill by Nepal's parliament addresses this need. The DRRM bill represents the culmination of a decade's worth of efforts by various development and humanitarian actors. This piece of legislation will institutionalize disaster risk reduction as well as mobilise local resources.

This bill also proposes setting up a Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council, which will have ministers for finance; supplies; agriculture; home affairs; physical infrastructure and transport; women, children and social welfare; defence; forest and soil conservation; education; urban development; irrigation; information and communications; and federal affairs and local development as the members.

The bill also talks about formation of a separate disaster management fund at the central level and a National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Centre (NDRRMC). The NDRRMC would further help in building resilience at the local and provincial levels by declaring an area disaster hit and facilitating the formation of disaster management committees.

It is worth noting that the DRRM bill can be leveraged to broaden the scope of DRR activities in the country. For instance, the theme of school safety and protection of children affected by disasters can be more easily planned and executed. Other allied themes such a nutrition, human mobility (both social and physical) as well as biodiversity protection can also be addressed through the medium of this bill. "Gender" is the key and essential factor of disaster risk reduction. It can also be included as DRR activities in the DRRM bill.

There is an increasing body of scientific evidence that holds climate change responsible for exacerbating the frequency and severity of extreme weather events. These extreme weather events often trigger large scale disasters in countries like Nepal due to the poor infrastructure and low access to basic services. The DRRM bill will also help in addressing the risk of such extreme weather events.

The devastation wreaked by the 2015 Nepal Earthquake, stirred an entire country into concerted action for disaster resilience. Since then, Nepal has been making a steady recovery which is observed in an overall improvement of various human development outcomes. The DRRM bill is another expression of the changing landscape of risk reduction in the serene Himalayan nation.

—AIDMI Team

for any further information please contact: bestteam@aidmi.org 

Why DDMP should be Child Centric? —Ten Reasons

Dr. Yasmin Ali Haque, Country Representative, UNICEF launched Child-Centric District Disaster Management Plan, Raipur along with Prasanta...